Masih A. Babagoli, Anja Benshaul-Tolonen,  Garazi Zulaika, Elizabeth Nyothach, Clifford Oduor, David Obor, Linda Mason, Emily Kerubo, Isaac Ngere, Kayla F. Laserson, Rhiannon Tudor Edwards, and Penelope A. Phillips-Howard.
Cost-Effectiveness and Cost–Benefit Analyses of Providing Menstrual Cups and Sanitary Pads to Schoolgirls in Rural Kenya
Women’s Health Reports, Volume 3.1, 2022
Link to PDF

In Vitro Study to Assess Effective Cleaning Techniques for Removing Staphylococcus aureus from Menstrual Cups
has been published in IJERPH and is available online:

Hampton, Osborne and Sweetland
Call a period a period: Exploring the language and knowledge of menstruation,  April, 2021, briefing note.
Link to PDF (English)

Hampton, Osborne et Sweetland
Appeler les règles les règles explorer le language et la connaissance des menstruations, Avril 2021. Note d’information.
Link to PDF (français)

Hampton, Osborne y Sweetland
Llamemos a la regla ‘la regla’: explorando el lenguaje y conocimiento sobre la menstruación, Abril,2021. Nota informativa. 
Link to PDF (español)

Hampton, Osborne  and Sweetland
Call a period a period: Exploring the language and knowledge of menstruation. May 2021.
Link to PDF

UK Department for Education
Period products in schools and colleges, 18 January 2020.

Hait A, Powers SE
The value of reusable feminine hygiene products evaluated by comparative environmental life cycle assessment, Science Direct, November 2019.

Zero Waste Scotland
The carbon impacts of menstrual products, November 2019.

BBC Business Reporter
Why are Menstrual Cups becoming so popular? October 2018.

European Commission
Impact assessment – reducing Marine litter: action on single-use plastics, May 2018.

Beksinska M, Nkjosi P, Zulu B & Smit J,
Acceptability of the menstrual cup among students in further education institutions in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2020 Sep 17:1-6. doi: 10.1080/13625187.2020.1815005. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32938248.
European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care 17 September, 2020

50% of 509 female students aged 18-24 years attending education institutions in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa reported that inserting the menstruakl cup was very easy or quite easy on first use. Of those who did not find it easy, 80% achieve comfort after 2-3 insertions. 5 insertions was the maximum to achieve comfort. More than 90% who had used the cup would continue to use it. Conclusion:’The menstrual cup was well accepted among this student population and should be considered as a cost-effective and environmentally sustainable option in menstrual health management initiatives in South Africa.’

Mags E. Beksinska PhD; Jenni Smit PhD; Ross Greener MSocSc; Catherine S. Todd MD; Mei-ling Ting Lee PhD;  Virginia Maphumulo RM; and Vivian Hoffmann, PhD.
Acceptability and Performance of the Menstrual Cup in South Africa:A Randomized Crossover Trial Comparing the Menstrual Cup to Tampons or Sanitary Pads,
JOURNAL OF WOMEN’S HEALTH, Volume 24, Number 2, 2015. 
Link to PDF

Phillips-Howard P, Zulaika G, Lencher M, Nyothach E, W, Under H, Laser K Mason L, Sivakani M, van Eijk, Laserson K.
‘Menstrual cup use, leakage, acceptability, safety and availability: a systematic review and meta-analysis’,
The Lancet Public Health, July 16, 2019

Alam M, Luby SP, Halder AK et al,
‘Menstrual hygiene management among Bangladeshi adolescent schoolgirls and risk factors affecting school absence: results from a cross-sectional survey.’
BMJ Open 2017;7:e015508. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015508

Alexander K, Zulaika G, Nyothach E, Oduor C, Mason L, Obor D, Eleveld A, Laserson KF, Phillips-Howard PA.
‘Do water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in primary schools consistently support schoolgirls’ menstrual needs? A longitudinal study in rural western Kenya,’
Int J Environ Res Public Health, 15(8); 1682, doi:10.3390/ijerph15081682, 2018.

Gade A, Hytti L.
‘Menstrual health in Rhino Camp refugee settlement, West Nile, Uganda. Pilot project intervention report.’
WoMena Uganda and ZOA, 2017.

Hennegan, J.M.
‘Menstrual Hygiene Management and Human Rights: the Case for an Evidence-Based Intervention’,
Women’s Reproductive Health, 4(3), pp. 212-231.

Hyttel M, Faldt Thomsen C, Luff B, Storrusten H, Nyakato VN, Tellier M.
‘Drivers and challenges to use of menstrual cups among schoolgirls in rural Uganda: a qualitative study.’
Waterlines, Practical Action Publishing. 2017;36(2):16.

Juma J, Nyothach E, Laserson KF, Oduor C, Arita L, Ouma C, Oruko K, Omoto J, Mason L, Alexander K, Fields B, Onyango C, Phillips-Howard PA.
‘Examining the safety of the menstrual cup provided to rural primary school girls in Western Kenya,’
BMJ Open, 0:e015429. doi:10.1136/ bmjopen-2016-015429, 2017.

Mason L, Nyothach E, Alexander K, Odhiambo FO, Eleveld A, Vulule J, Rheingans R, Laserson KF, Mohammed A, Phillips-Howard PA.
‘”We keep it secret so no one should know” – A qualitative study to explore young schoolgirls attitudes and experiences with menstruation in rural western Kenya.’
PLoS ONE, 8(11):e79132, 2013.

Mason L, Laserson K, Oruko K, Nyothach E, Alexander K, Odhiambo F, Eleveld A, Isiye E, Ngere I, Omoto J, Mohammed A, Vulule J, Phillips-Howard P.
‘Adolescent schoolgirls’ experiences of menstrual cups and pads in rural western Kenya: a qualitative study.’
Waterlines special MHM edition, 34:1; doi: 10.3362/1756-3488.2015.003, 2015.

Nyothach E, Alexander K, Oduor C, Mason L, Oruko K, Odhiambo F, Vulule J, Laserson K, Phillips-Howard PA.
‘Handwashing for menstrual hygiene management among primary schoolgirls in rural western Kenya.’
DOI:; 34(4),279-295, 2015.

Oduor C, Alexander K, Oruko K, Nyothach E, Mason L, Odhiambo F, Vulule J, Laserson K, Phillips-Howard PA.
‘Schoolgirls’ experiences of changing and disposal of menstrual hygiene items and inferences for WASH in schools.’
DOI:; 34(4),397-411, 2015.

Phillips-Howard PA, Nyothach E, ter Kuile FO, Omoto J, Wang D, Zeh C, Onyango C, Mason L, Alexander K, Odhiambo FO, Eleveld A, Mohammed A, Tudor-Edwards R, van Eijk AM, Vulule J, Faragher B, Laserson KF.
‘Menstrual cups and sanitary pads to reduce school attrition, and sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections: A cluster randomised controlled feasibility study in rural western Kenya’,
BMJ Open; 6(11):e013229. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013229, 2016.

Phillips-Howard PA, Olilo G, Burmen B, Otieno F, Odongo F, Oduor C, Nyothach E, Amek N, Zielinski-Gutierrez E, Odhiambo F, Zeh C, Kwaro D, Mills L, Laserson KF.
‘Menstrual needs and associations with sexual and reproductive risks in rural Kenyan females: a cross-sectional behavioural survey linked with HIV prevalence.’
J Womens Health, 24 (10), 1-11, Doi: 10.1089/jwh.2014.5031, 2015

Sommer, M.
‘An Early Window of Opportunity for Promoting Girls Health: Policy Implications of the Girls Puberty Book Project in Tanzania’,
Global Journal of Health Education and Promotion, 14(1).

van Eijk AM, Laserson KF, Nyothach E, Oruko K, Omoto J, Mason L, Alexander K, Oduor C, Mohammed A, Eleveld A, Ngere I, Obor D, Vulule J. Phillips-Howard PA.
‘Use of menstrual cups among schoolgirls: longitudinal observations nested in a randomised controlled feasibility study in rural western Kenya,’
Reproductive Health, 15:139

Goddard, L.J.
US Patent #1,891,761, December 1932.


Brief on Menstrual Cups
December 2020
Link to PDF

Tackling Misconceptions about Menstrual Cups in East Africa
Janie Hampton & Mandu Reid, The Cup Effect; Jennifer Rubli, Femme International; Penelope Phillips-Howard, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine; Elizabeth Nyothach, Kenya Medical Research Institute; Nancy Durell McKenna, SafeHandsforMothers; Siri Tellier, WoMena.  Women Deliver conference, Vancouver, June 2019.
Link to PDF

Evidence on Knowledge and Use of Menstrual Cups in Malawi
UNFPA and Malawi Girl Guides, November 2020.
Link to PDF

Menstrual Cup Summit Report, 2019
Link to PDF

Menstrual Health Management in East and Southern Africa: A Review Paper
Siri Tellier and Maria Hyttel, UNFPA, 2018.

First Menstrual Cup Summit, Kenya
Camilla Wirseen, 2018.
Link to PDF

Break the Barriers: Girls’ Experiences of Menstruation in UK
Plan International, 2017.

Menstrual health in Rhino Camp refugee settlement, West Nile, Uganda
Pilot project intervention report, Gade A, Hytti L. WoMena Uganda and ZOA, 2017.

Successes and Lessons learned from the Twaweza Program, Kilimanjaro Region, (Tanzania) Monitoring & Evaluation Report
J Rubli, Femme International, 2017.

More research on menstrual cups:


Our Bodies Ourselves develops and promotes evidence-based information on girls’ and women’s reproductive health and sexuality.

Sexual health and well-being for under 25s.

The Menstrual Cup Coalition supports the safe use of affordable menstrual cups by sharing knowledge and good practice globally.

All photos © World Menstrual Network unless otherwise stated.